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Background: A congenital anomaly may be defined in terms of physical structure as a malformation, an abnormality of physical structure or form usually found at birth or during the first few weeks of life. Congenital anomalies affect approximately 1 in 33 infants and result in approximately 3.2 million birth defect-related disabilities every year. Congenital anomalies or birth defects are relatively common, affecting 3% to 5% of live births in the United States (US) and 2.1% in Europe. Congenital anomalies account for 8% to 15% of perinatal deaths and 13% to 16% of neonatal deaths in India.
Objectives: To provide an insight on the burden and types of surgical problems encountered in our NICU of Bapuji Child Health Institute & Research Center, JJM Medical College, Davangere, Karnataka, India and to study the incidence, clinical profile and outcome of surgical condition. Methodology: A total of 3820 babies were examined over a period of 2 years. The relevant information was documented on a semi-structured proforma and analysed.
Results: Overall incidence of congenital malformations at birth was 24.8 per 1000 births. The GIT system (51.58%) was most commonly involved followed by respiratory system (26.32%). The incidence of congenital malformation was more in male babies than female babies. Increased frequency was seen in babies born to mothers between 26–30 years & primigravida. The factors which significantly increased the rate of congenital malformations were consanguinity in parents & bad obstetric history. Out of 95 cases, 72% got discharged normally, 18% died in NICU and 10% got discharged against medical advise.
Conclusion: With emphasis on “small family” norms and population control it is necessary to identify malformations so that interventional programmes can be planned. Systematic clinical examination of newborns for early detection of anomalies that may warrant medical or surgical intervention. Accurate antenatal anomaly scan need to be done to identify major malformations and terminate the pregnancy.
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